Research & Validation

Scientific validation of SAFTE model & Readiband technology

Scientific validation of biomathematical fatigue and performance modelling

This extensive research looked at biomathematical fatigue models applied to a variety of laboratory and field scenarios, such as railroad and aviation operations. The study concluded that fatigue models, such as SAFTE, are a reliable predictor of fatigue impairment and performance.

Comparison of Mathematical Model Predictions to Experimental Data of Fatigue and Performance

Hans P.A. Van Dongen – Journal of Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine

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Validation of the SAFTE model in US Armed Forces applications

SAFTE was developed and extensively studied under the extreme conditions encountered by subjects in the US military. The DoD has long recognized the effects of fatigue on physical and cognitive performance, and this paper further validates SAFTE’s ability to accurately measure and predict it.

Fatigue Models for Applied Research in Warfighting

Steven R. Hursh, Daniel P. Redmond, Michael L. Johnson, David R. Thorne, Gregory Belenky, Thomas J. Balkin, William F. Storm, James C. Miller, and Douglas R. Eddy – Journal of Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine

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US DoT finds SAFTE scoring is a reliable indicator of fatigue-related workplace accident risk

The SAFTE model uses a simple scoring system to measure fatigue impairment and cognitive effectiveness. This study compared SAFTE scoring against the more commonly understood effects of alcohol impairment. It found that lower SAFTE scores lead to an increase in the risk of occupational accidents.

Validation and Calibration of a Fatigue Assessment Tool for Railroad Work Schedules

Steven R. Hursh PhD, Thomas G. Raslear PhD, A. Scott Kaye, Joseph F. Franzone Jr – US DoT, Federal Railroad Administration

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US DoT concludes SAFTE fatigue model is able to predict workplace fatigue risk in the field

It has been scientifically proven that workplace safety is compromised when people are fatigue impaired. This study validates the use of the SAFTE biomathematical fatigue model in the aviation industry, as it relates to fatigue measurement and prediction, and its effect on human performance.

Flight Attendant Work/Rest Patterns, Alertness, and Performance Assessment: Field Validation of Biomathematical Fatigue Modeling

Peter G. Roma, Steven R. Hursh, Andrew M. Mead, Thomas E. Nesthus – US DoT, Federal Aviation Administration

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The Readiband is 93% accurate at measuring sleep compared to a sleep lab

The wrist-worn Readiband is able to objectively determine human sleep and wake periods using the sophisticated technology of actigraphy. When compared to clinical polysomnography (PSG), the Readiband is 93% accurate and far more practical for long-term and day-to-day sleep measurement.

Validation of the Fatigue Science Readiband™ Actigraph and Associated Sleep/Wake Classification Algorithms

Russell, C.A. PhD, Caldwell, J.A. PhD, Arand, D. PhD, Myers, L.J. PhD, Wubbels, P. BS, Downs, H. PhD – Archinoetics, LLCs

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AMA and Harvard find hospitals can use fatigue modeling to identify the risk of medical error

Research done at Harvard Medical School on fatigue modeling, using SAFTE and the Readiband, found that 48% of residents were fatigued and a further 27% were impaired. Results were worse for night-float staff. Overall, residents’ fatigue levels were predicted to increase the risk of medical error by 22%.

Surgeon Fatigue: A Prospective Analysis of the Incidence, Risk, and Intervals of Predicted Fatigue-Related Impairment in Residents

Frank McCormick MD, John Kadzielski MD, Christopher P. Landrigan MD MPH, Brady Evans BS, James H. Herndon MD MBA, Harry E. Rubash MD — American Medical Assoc. and Harvard Medical School

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Emergency department uses SAFTE and Readiband to measure doctor fatigue

A study by the Univ. of Illinois and St. Francis Medical Center used Fatigue Science SAFTE and Readiband technology to measure resident doctor fatigue and effectiveness under real-time hospital conditions. The research revealed that shift scheduling had a detrimental effect on effectiveness scores.

Identification of Emergency Medicine Fatigue At-Risk Periods Using Actigraphy and Computer Modeling: A Pilot Study

Christopher Fox MD, Victoria Hall MD, Timothy Schaefer MD, Robert Wolford MD — University of Illinois

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Occupational fatigue risk & performance

More sleep improves military recruits’ physical and mental performance

The demanding environment of the United States Military Academy was the setting for a 4-year study of sleep in military training regimes. By extending sleep from 6 to 8 hours per night, researchers saw improved academic performance, especially memory consolidation, which improves learning capacity.

Sleep and Academic Performance in U.S. Military Training and Education Programs

Nita Lewis Miller, Lawrence G. Shattuck, Panagiotis Matsangas, and Jeff Dyche

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CDC stats show sleep habits of US populations affect their ability to perform daily activities

This report by CDC found that sleeping less than the recommended 7 hours a night led to as much as a 50% increase in difficulty performing daily tasks. The study examined several US populations, concluding that poor sleep habits had a substantial impact on health, wellness and occupational performance.

Effect of Short Sleep Duration on Daily Activities: United States, 2005–2008

AG Wheaton PhD, Y Liu MS MPH, G.S. Perry DrPH, JB Croft PhD — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

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Sleep & athletic performance

Athletes improved their performance simply by sleeping more

Research on collegiate athletes showed they improved their on-court performance — specifically shooting accuracy, free throw and 3-pointer percentages — simply by being in bed longer. These athletes performed better and reported decreased feelings of tension, anger and confusion during practices and games.

The Effects of Sleep Extension on the Athletic Performance of Collegiate Basketball Players

Cheri D. Mah MS, Kenneth E. Mah MD MS, Eric J. Kezirian MD MPH, William C. Dement MD PhD — Stanford University and University of California

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Scheduling that considers circadian cycles gives athletes a competitive edge

More research has shown that scheduling games, practices and travel, with the body’s natural 24-hour circadian cycle, can produce significant advantages when it comes to game time. Thoughtful scheduling can ensure elite athletes are performing at their peak when it really counts.

The Impact of Circadian Misalignment on Athletic Performance in Professional Football Players

Roger S. Smith DO, Bradley Efron PhD, Cheri D. Mah MS, Atul Malhotra MD — Stanford University and University of California

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Fatigued MLB players show poorer judgment at the plate

Researchers for the journal Sleep found that in 24 of 30 MLB teams studied, players’ strike-zone judgment was much better at the start of season than at the end. Player fatigue due to increasingly demanding travel and game scheduling was singled out for the worsening reaction times and judgment.

Declining Plate Discipline during the Major League Baseball Season May be the Result of Fatigue

Scott Kutscher, Yanna Song, Lily Wang, Raghu Upender, Beth Malow — American Academy of Neurology

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Elite athletes who sleep well shown to have longer careers

A study that looked at 80 MLB players found that higher levels of sleepiness significantly decreased the likelihood the athlete would remain in the league three seasons later. It suggested that without strategies to manage player sleep, prolonged fatigue would erode a player’s career length.

Studies Link Fatigue and Sleep to Major League Baseball Performance and Career Longevity

W. Christopher Winter MD — American Academy of Sleep Medicine

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Sleep a significant factor in achieving peak athletic performance

Two studies with collegiate swimmers and basketball players showed that increasing sleep to 10 hours per night significantly improved performance. Swimmers saw improved start, sprint and turn times, and number of kick strokes. Both studies helped participants break a number of records.

Ongoing Study Continues to Show that Extra Sleep Improves Athletic Performance

Cheri D. Mah MS — American Academy of Sleep Medicine

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